|Stonehenge, 3100-1600 BCE; Book of Kells (det.), 800; H. Holbein, Thomas More, 1572|
The small island of Britain has produced some of the greatest art and architecture of the western world. In the Neolithic period, megalithic monuments such as Stonehenge were sites for communal ritual. The Anglo Saxons produced the treasures of Sutton Hoo, while the art of the illuminated manuscript is epitomized in the Book of Kells.
|J. Reynolds, Master Hare, 1788; W. Blake, Ancient of Days, 1794; J.M.W. Turner, Rain, Steam and Speed, 1844|
During the Medieval period, architecture reached new heights (literally), as the Norman and Gothic builders expressed the spiritual through stone. In the Renaissance, Hans Holbein brought realism to the art of the portrait, a form later perfected by “Grand Manner” painter, Sir Joshua Reynolds.
The rustic idylls of John Constable, stormy seascapes of J. M. W. Turner and visionary art of William Blake exemplify the Romantic era, while the satirical prints of Hogarth present the Enlightenment view of British society.
During the 19th century, the Pre-Raphaelites, Aubrey Beardsley and ex-American James McNeil Whistler championed “art for art’s sake”, while in the 20th century, the Bloomsbury Group, English surrealists, and sculptors Henry Moore and Barbara Hepworth broke new ground. England’s most renowned artist, Frances Bacon, captured the trauma of post-war Britain.
|D.G, Rossetti, La Ghirlandata, 1871-74; Barbara Hepworth; Francis Bacon, Study after Velázquez's Portrait of Pope Innocent X, 1953|
We’ll finish our survey with a look at the “YBAs”, a generation of young British artists who took the art world by storm in the 1980s.
This course is offered through the University of Toronto's School of Continuing Studies. It runs for 8 weeks and costs $325. Click here to register.
Learn about art’s fascinating trajectory from the Age of Enlightenment to the pluralism of today. The great 18th and 19th century western art movements of Neoclassicism, Romanticism, Realism and Impressionism reflect an increasingly secularized society, while Expressionism, Symbolism and Post-Impressionism bring the individual artist’s view to the fore.
In Africa and Oceania, art retains its traditional role in worship and ritual, while providing inspiration for the European avant-garde including Picasso, Gauguin and Modigliani. The birth of Abstraction signals western art’s final emancipation from representation, culminating in Minimalism, Conceptual and Earth Art. Yet the image returns as currency in Pop Art and Post-Modernism.
Contemporary art, ranging from painting and sculpture to installation and multi-media, is explored in its various roles as vehicle for social criticism, signifier of wealth, barometer of the zeitgeist, or as a soothing respite from the daily grind.
This course is eight weeks of two-hour classes, and can be taken in conjunction with Art Through the Ages I, or independently. Cost is $325 plus HST. Click here to register.
The Influencers: Six "Old Masters" You Should Know Wednesdays, January 10 to February 28, 2018, 11:00am - 1:00pm
|Rembrandt, Woman Bathing in a Stream, 1654. National Gallery, London.|
Michelangelo, Titian, Caravaggio, Rubens, Rembrandt and Velázquez — find out how and why these artists came to influence subsequent generations, changing art history.
|Michelangelo, Creation of the Sun, Moon and Plants, 1511. Sistine Ceiling.|
Michelangelo (1475-1564) was the first art superstar. Equally talented in the realms of sculpture and painting, his magnificent depictions of the human form in motion set standards that challenged and influenced artists for generations to come.
|Titian, Noli Me Tangere, 1511-1512. National Gallery, London.|
Titian (1490-1576) was the most important painter of the Venetian Renaissance. Celebrated for his vibrant use of colour, Titian was in demand for religious paintings and portraits, but it was his sensuous mythological scenes that made him famous at courts throughout Europe.
|Caravaggio, Supper at Emmaus, 1601. National Gallery, London.|
Caravaggio (1571-1610) lived a brief and tumultuous life, yet was responsible for a revolution in art. We’ll discover how he brought religious art to life in dramatic paintings so powerful and naturalistic that he sparked a whole new style.
|Rubens, Two Satyrs, 1618-1619. Alte Pinakothek, Munich.|
Rubens (1577-1640) is regarded as one of the greatest painters of all times. Discover why he was a favourite at courts throughout Europe, and how he was equally masterful at portraiture, sacred subjects, mythological scenes and landscapes.
|Velázquez, Old Woman Frying Eggs, 1618. National Gallery, Scotland.|
Velázquez (1599-1660) was the painter of the Spanish court, known for his bravura brushwork and his psychologically penetrating portraiture. His famous painting, Las Meninas, has puzzled scholars for centuries, but his early bodegónes (kitchen still lives) are equally intriguing.
|Rembrandt, Self-Portrait with Two Circles, 1665. Kenwood House, London.|
Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669) was the greatest painter of the Dutch Golden Age. We’ll look at his masterful prints, his extraordinary series of self-portraits, and discover how his renowned painting, The Night Watch, broke new ground.
This course is offered through the University of Toronto's School of Continuing Studies. It runs for 8 weeks and costs $325 plus tax. To register, click here.
|Golden Gallery, Charlottenburg, Berlin, 1740s.|
Rococo may have sprouted in France, but it blossomed in Germany. During the 18th century, France was the leader of style, and for rulers of present day Germany’s many states, decorating in the French style was a way to demonstrate their sophistication.
|Golden Gallery, Charlottenburg.|
|Golden Gallery, Charlottenburg.|
Supervising architect, Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff (1699-1753), had studied in Paris on Frederick’s tab, while sculptor Johann August Nahl the Elder (1710-1781) had collaborated with noted French designer, Nicolas Pineau. The pair are credited with developing the form of Rococo known as Frederician.
|Trellis motif in the Golden Gallery.|
While it features the requisite Rococo S and C curves, and of course cupids up the wazoo, what distinguishes the Frederician style is the plentiful references to gardens and nature. Frederick the Great was known for his interest in horticulture, and had his summer palace at Sanssouci designed so that he could walk straight out into the garden.
|Cherubs, grapes and birds in the Golden Gallery.|
The first thing one notices in the famous Golden Gallery in the New Wing at Charlottenburg is the colour, an extraordinary delicate green that balances the copious amount of gilt stucco. Windows on both of the long sides illuminate the assortment of cherubs, birds, flowers and plants that spread out over the walls and ceiling in delightful asymmetrical fashion.
|Candelabra in the Golden Gallery.|
Charlottenburg was extensively damaged in WWII and when yours truly visited (June 2017) parts were closed due to on-going restoration work. But the Golden Gallery was what I most wanted to see, and I'm please to say it quite exceeded my expectations. Thanks Frederick, you made my trip!
To find out more about Charlottenburg and the Golden Gallery click here.
|Jean-Honoré Fragonard, Swarm of Cupids, 1767. Musée du Louvre. Source.|
Spring seems like the ideal time to revel in the delightful excesses of 18th century art. Please join me for Art of the 18th Century, an eight week course beginning on Tuesday, April 4, at U of T. More cupids than you can shake a stick at!